Only recently has interest in "below-the-line" become widespread, and even now the term is virtually unknown in some countries with advanced marketing systems. In organising an E.S.O.M.A.R. Seminar on this topic we therefore were conscious that we also would be providing a key reference work for the future. The papers presented range widely, albeit with the usual and seemingly inevitable emphasis on the mass marketing of packaged goods . But they were also selected to illustrate a variety of techniques; and of approaches, from the highly conceptual and "macro" to the limited and robustly pragmatic . Much was said (and seen) which cannot be captured on the page.