PPM commercial audience estimates offer insight about consumers' avoidance of tv commercials. Total commercial avoidance, an average 7%, is composed of nearly six- tenths channel switching and four-tenths due to other 'interruptions'. Program content appears to be the strongest predictor of avoidance. Gender and age exacerbate commercial avoidance with men, teens, and younger adults showing above-average churn. There is also variation in the relationship of exact, commercial-minute audience levels to average-minute audience. High-churn formats produce lower indices with even lower levels for men. In other words, there is potential for bias against particular media formats and particular targets in today's currency-based 'proxy' measures of commercial audience -- average minute and AQH. PPM and Apollo estimates would help identify sources of bias and alternatives going forward. These results represent progress toward quantifying the mechanics of commercial avoidance for buyers and sellers. They also demonstrate the value of PPM's near-passive, direct, and precise capture of persons'-level media exposure.