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Research papers

Improving consumer fragrance testing

This paper discusses the prevalence of sniff-testing in the fragrance industry, and suggests that the over-use of this methodology, in place of home-use testing, often prevents clients from receiving the superior fragrances that they are expecting...

Catalogue: ESOMAR Fragrance Research Conference 2005
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
Company: Symrise AG
May 15, 2005

Research papers

To sniff or not to sniff?

This paper is intended primarily as a discussion-opener and as such takes a fresh look at the fragrance industry's use of sniff testing as a means of evaluating fragrances among consumers, examines the place of this methodology within product testing...

Catalogue: ESOMAR Fragrance Research Conference 2003
Authors: Dydiane Goodman, Ivor Shalofsky
March 16, 2003

Research papers

Quality and ethics in market research and social research

Quality in marketing and opinion research is difficult to define, as it means different things to different people. To some, it means carrying out research studies in accordance with current best practice, using methodologies which are ‘state of...

Catalogue: ESOMAR Handbook Of Market And Opinion Research
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
September 1, 1998

Research papers

A fresh approach to home-use testing

This paper describes a procedure adapted from conventional consumer product testing methodology which substantially improves the quality of test data relative to previous testing approaches, notably for fragrances for functional and toiletry...

Catalogue: Seminar 1996: Capturing The Elusive Appeal Of Fragrance
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
December 1, 1996

Research papers

Testing fragrances for personal products in the Middle East

In the Middle East, consumer testing of fragrances for personal products poses all of the same methodological problems as in other parts of the world, plus some particular problems having to do with the place of perfume in Moslem culture. The...

Catalogue: ESOMAR/MERF/IAA Conference 1994: Challenges And Opportunities For Research In The Middle East
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
January 1, 1994

Research papers

First impression versus extended usage

In the fine fragrance industry, unlike many other fmcg industries, systematic consumer product-testing has usually been conspicuous by its absence. The reasons are varied, including perfume's own traditions rooted in fashion rather than in marketing,...

Catalogue: Seminar 1991: Fine Fragrances And Fragrances In Consumer Products
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
June 15, 1991

Research papers

Fragrance choice and perceptual mapping

This paper describes the importance of taste and flavour preference to the basic acceptability of a wide range of consumer products, and outlines why reasons for preference are not often well communicated from the consumer to the producer. It...

Catalogue: Seminar 1989: Research For Flavours And Fragrances
Author: Ivor Shalofsky
June 15, 1989

Research papers

Sponsoring impact and how to read it

This paper is concerned with sponsorship as a marketing activity, and particularly with the sponsorship of sporting events. In this paper we look at some of the reasons for this situation, discuss its implications for sports sponsorship in general,...

Catalogue: Seminar 1985: Below-The-Line And Sponsoring
Authors: Ivor Shalofsky, Nicolò di San Germano
November 6, 1985

Research papers