The paper discusses the role played by nationality in branding. Increasingly, European markets are a battleground for local brands, other European brands, and brands from the USA, Japan, and other countries. It is shown that consumers have strong images of other countries, their people, and the products they are making, and the services they are offering. These images have themselves developed from historical strengths in particular markets, through to the modern era where perceptions of strong brands have driven images of their parent country, according to whether and how they have used their nationality. The images of each of the main European countries, and the USA and Japan, are discussed in detail, and observations are drawn on the future role of nationality in developing international brands.