This chapter deals with the contribution of research, both in the planning and evaluation, of below the line activity. Any definition of below the line assumes a false dichotomy since many promotions are dependent on media advertising. This would be so, for example, when reduced offers are backed by national press advertising. In the current context below the line expenditure is defined to include the following, whether or not they are supported by media advertising: (a) any in-store promotional activity to the consumer such as premium offers, reduced price offers, stamps and coupons, competitions and banded packs; (b) any trade incentives or discounts to the retailer; (c) all display material whether in support of specific promotions or not; (d) any point-of-scale aids such as leaflets, brochures, store demonstrations; (e) any direct promotion to the consumer such as couponing or free samples. Expenditure on items such as sales force incentive schemes and sponsorships is excluded for the purpose of this chapter.