The paper reports the results of a detailed study of the cardiovascular marketplace in Russia. This was a diary study executed among 97 generalists and 50 specialists working in polyclinics across Russia. The study covered all aspects of 2,367 patient visits, including comprehensive patient details, risk factors, symptomatology, condition[s] treated and the drug or drugs started, switched and/or continued. Further, details of the doctors treating each patient were also collected so that data could be cross-analysed by doctor characteristics. Key findings included the very young age of the cardiovascular patients, a high diagnosing level of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), a low frequency of cholesterol testing and the high usage of very old drugs (notably reserpine) at the expense of expensive, newer products. These results, where appropriate, are also compared with findings from analogous studies in other countries. Finally, and in order to give some insight into the workings of front-line medicine in Russia, general information about how the patient-doctor relationship works in Russia also forms an important part of this paper.