Two streams of online research have developed. In the first (largely adopted by traditional research agencies), traditional survey and/or question-based techniques are undertaken across digital media (rather than face-to-face or by phone). The second (largely adopted by new economy companies) uses techniques based on observation and measurement uniquely possible in digital media and is often based on census measurement of activity and linking of events separated by time and location. Combining the two streams offers marketers a level of detail and certainty in their research that has never previously been possible. This new research empowers the marketer to make decisions based on knowledge, and hence escalates the importance of research in the marketing mix. Traditional research companies should establish where they add value in this process or risk being disinter-mediated. New economy companies should integrate the relevant expertise from established research and analysis techniques. Two case studies are provided.