The paper discusses the benefit of the introducing of the health insurance system in the Czech Republic. It explains the role of particular subjects of the system : government, health insurance companies, providers of the health care and clients. These findings are partly based on the secondary data. The paper also summarizes the results which were obtained through the primary research. The survey with standard structured questionnaire has been led in Moravia region (the important part of the Czech Republic with 3 million of inhabitants) last year. The sample size was 609 respondents. The quota sampling was formed in respect of the sex, age, education, place of living and gross income of household.