In Norway, the appearance of satellite television has lead to a fundamental change in the attitude towards television in general. While formerly considered a cultural threat, it is now only foreign television which is perceived in that way. National television, on the other hand, is considered as a means for cultural defence. Satellite television was introduced as part of a process leading to the breakup of NRKs broadcasting monopoly. One of the things that has come out of this process, is the establishment of permanent audience research. In order to define the task for research, we had to analyse the expectations to the national television in the new setting, and consider its ability to meet these expectations on competitive terms. Hence we also had to analyse the new types of competitors that are now appearing. Our conclusion so far is that in order to overcome these challenges, national public service television must learn to compete its own terms. Awareness of this should have an impact on audience research, which to a large degree defines the premises for competition.