Two opposing philosophies have divided the multinational advertising and marketing community. 1) There are certain universal consumer needs and values; therefore, it is possible to develop, a standardized advertising campaign in one market and export it for use in a multitude of foreign markets. 2) There are very significant differences among cultures. International advertising campaigns must be tailored to fit the unique needs, lifestyles, values, and customs of each individual market, addressing consumers who possess dramatically different cultures, mores and values. All disputing parties agree, however, that there is a need for empirical evidence: multinational advertising research using consistent methods, measures, and benchmarks to give global advertisers insight and guidance around the issue of standardized vs. customized international ad campaigns.