This present chapter concentrates largely on ad hoc pricing research. Only a brief section on econometrics and simulated test markets is provided. In general, econometric techniques form a quite separate body, which cannot be adequately dealt with in the present chapter. While it is certainly true that econometric work can provide extremely useful pointers to the effects of price in a range of markets, it must also be said that there are many instances where it is simply not applicable. New product development (NPD) is covered, but only in relation to price.