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Research papers

Below-the-line promotion to the medical profession

From 1948 on, the pharmaceutical companies, mainly American, began to build enormous sales of branded drugs by promoting to the medical profession. In the United Kingdom their main customer has always ultimately been the National Health Service and...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: D. C. Wren
June 15, 1971

Research papers

The contribution of research to the planning, budgeting and evaluation of below-the-line activity

In this paper I propose to outline briefly some underlying factors leading to the growth of below-the-line activity, to describe the marketing functions performed by different types of promotional activity, and to suggest a rational approach to the...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: David Lowe-Watson
Company: ESSO
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Some comments

Comments about the contents of the Seminar "Below-the-line activities".

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: M. Matthews
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Report-back from working group III

There were four main points which emerged: 1. Disagreement with the view that "a brand is never the same after a price-off promotion"; 2. The need to define clearly the objectives of a particular promotion; 3. A discussion of the merits of...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Elizabeth Fallaw
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Panel observation on three specific forms of brand promotion

There is a logical correlation between growing indifference to brands on the consumers' part and the increase in such "below the line activities" generated by producers. One sometimes wonders whether these activities are aimed at the consumer or at...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Coen C. J. de Koning
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Report-back from working group II

Our group felt that in the papers given at the Seminar too much emphasis has been put on the evaluation of below-the-line activities. Our second point concerned the subject of market segmentation. We would like to know how to go about tracing people,...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Janny N. Lok
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Report-back from working group IV

There was considerable comment from Group IV arising from discussion with the speakers. But most of it can be condensed under these three headings: 1. Trade; 2. The operational question; 3. Consumer models.

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Robin T. J. Tuck
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Foreword

Only recently has interest in "below-the-line" become widespread, and even now the term is virtually unknown in some countries with advanced marketing systems. In organising an E.S.O.M.A.R. Seminar on this topic we therefore were conscious that we...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Peter B. Mooney
June 15, 1971

Research papers

Test and physical simulation of schemes directed to the consumers

At a time where Market Testing is criticized for its costs and mathematical modelling is developed, sometimes imprudently, one has not to forget about the potential of Physical Micro Modelling, as well as Physical Simulation. Reason why we have...

Catalogue: Seminar 1971: Below-The-Line Activities
Author: Jacques Bonnafont
June 15, 1971