The modern advertising agency does not create any advertisement in a vacuum. It ensures that everything published by its clients is part of an integrated marketing operation - whether it is an advertisement in any of the major media, point-of-sale material for use in the shops, sales aids used by the company's salesmen, or references to the product in editorial columns of newspapers and magazines. Every day increases our knowledge of the size and nature of the market for most forms of consumer goods and of the parts played by the leading brands in each product group. Advertising agencies rely on conventional research - often obtained from, a subscription service from independent research organisations to, provide the bare bones of their marketing plans. The various techniques for studying the motives for consumer action form the second stage of research in developing the marketing theme and, particularly, the creative approach.