Closing of the seminar

Date of publication: November 6, 1985


Some remarks on what we called below-the-line. It seems to me that this area has reached a more developed status from the research point of view. Still there is room for improvement, especially: We observe that cumulated experiences lead to learning curves or experience lines; - It is interesting to note that changes at the retail level ask for special attention to meet the needs of trade marketing; -Modern tools emerge, such as telemarketing and POS scanning systems. Also here, it is necessary to specify the requirements for promotion.

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