'Below-the-line spending' the need for understanding and control

Date of publication: November 6, 1985


SPAR has been designing, implementing, evaluating and executing promotional programs since 1967. Our approach has been successfully implemented in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia. In the UK, through a joint agreement, AGB supports our services there. SPAR's method has been applied to almost every form of sales promotion event, trade and consumer, from case discounting, co-op monies and payment for retailer programs to consumer packs and special forms of couponing. SPAR's approach has been proven successful by providing reliable and actionable information for a wide variety of categories.

William H. Bartels


This is a long description of some author details.

This could also be of interest:

Research Papers

Research Papers

Research Papers

  • PDF